Maryland Manual On-Line -




[photo, Caterpillar bulldozer & conveyor belt dumping coal, Conrail coal yard, Baltimore, Maryland]
  • Mines
  • Rock Types
  • In 2013, nearly 400 mines were active in the State. Some 63 firms operate mines in Maryland, according to the 2007 U.S. Economic Census. With a combined payroll of $62.7 million, they employ nearly 1,300 people.

    Caterpillar bulldozer & conveyor belt dumping coal, Conrail coal yard, Baltimore, Maryland, May 2015. Photo by Sarah A. Hanks.

    Mining has been a significant part of Maryland's economy, particularly in the western counties. During the 1700s, the first mines in Maryland were dug for coal and stone. Using both the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, and the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad to ship their product east, they helped spur transportation development in the State. In some cases, companies carved their own transportation routes, as in 1845, when the Mount Savage Coal & Iron Company completed the Mt. Savage Railroad in an effort to expedite shipping and eliminate reliance on private shipping companies.

    By the mid-1900s, the mining industry began to decline in Maryland. More buildings were being constructed with brick, crushed stone, and steel. This factor, as well as a decrease in reliance on coal as a fuel source, caused many mines to became less profitable. Some tapped out; others became financial burdens on owners. Consequently, fewer mines were dug, and more closed.

    As many mines were abandoned, they posed safety and environmental risks. Plans and programs to reduce risks and improve former mine sites are overseen by the Mining Program within the Maryland Department of the Environment, and the Interstate Mining Compact Commission.


    Mines primarily are divided into four types: drift, shaft, slope, and surface.

    Drift Mines use horizontal passages to access mineral deposits, when the mineral is located close to the surface, and the vein forms a nearly horizontal sheet.

    Shaft Mines employ vertical tunnels to reach far below the surface. They are used when a mineral forms a vertical vein, or lies too deep to reach by other means.

    Slope Mines use sloping access shafts to reach mineral deposits. They afford access to minerals not found at the surface, but not deep enough to warrant shaft mining.

    Surface Mines extract minerals that are just below the surface, or are too unstable for tunnelling techniques to reach. The term, surface mining, describes all procedures that remove the surface to reach mineral deposits. This method includes open-pit and strip mining, and is used to reach cinder, gravel, and sand.

    Coal mines have been a major source of income for Maryland since the early 1800s. Found in the western counties, these mines once exported to all states, and even Europe. Coal mining here peaked in the early 1900s with more than 450 mines in operation, producing over five million tons a year. In the years since, despite a dramatic drop in the number of active mines, technological advances have allowed the production of more coal per mine with less damage to the environment than ever before.

    Today, within the Department of the Environment, the Bureau of Mines oversees and approves all proposed mining plans in the State. The Bureau also evaluates and approves plans for environmental restoration of lands containing abandoned mines. Currently, 60 permitted coal mines operate in Maryland, producing over two million tons of coal each year. Most are surface mines, while five are underground drift mines.

    Noncoal is defined as any mined commodity that is not coal or peat, and is referred to as nonfuel or industrial minerals. Noncoal includes aggregate (used in blacktop, concrete, & plaster), clay, and stone, as well as other minerals.

    There are 298 noncoal surface mines operating in Maryland. Most of them are found in southern Maryland - in Charles, Prince George's and St. Mary's counties. The Minerals, Oil and Gas Division within the Department of the Environment oversees these mines.


    The first gold find in Maryland was reported in 1849 near Brookville in Montgomery County. Accounts also tell of Union soldiers finding gold in streams while encamped outside of Washington, DC, in 1861. Since then, 45 gold mines have been dug in the western part of the State. Although small dustings still are reported occasionally in streams, none of the mines remain active.


    Once a thriving industry in the State, the mining of building stone abated as its use declined in construction. In the early 20th century, Maryland mined and exported granite, marble, quartzite, sandstone, and slate. Some of these stones even became synonamous with their location. Baltimore Gneiss, for example, was mined along Jones Falls and Gwynns Falls. As early as the 1700s, some of Baltimore's first buildings were constructed using this stone.

    Mined stones are classified by two types: crushed, and dimension.

    Crushed Stone is a form of aggregate, and is a base for making asphault, concrete, macadam, and tarmac. Used extensively to pave and construct roads, crushed stone mined in Maryland has increased in annual value from $161 million in 1997 to $209 million in 2011.

    Dimension Stone is any stone that is mined, then altered to required specifications. Once used as a primary building material, dimension stone production has declined greatly over the last century. The value of dimension stone mined from Maryland in 2011 was $1.2 million, down from $2.4 million in 1997.

    Maryland Geological Survey
    Maryland Constitutional Offices & Agencies
    Maryland Departments
    Maryland Independent Agencies
    Maryland Executive Commissions, Committees, Task Forces, Advisory Boards
    Maryland Universities & Colleges
    Maryland Counties
    Maryland Municipalities
    Maryland at a Glance

    Maryland Manual On-Line

    Search the Manual

     Maryland Manual On-Line, 2015

    July 1, 2015

     Note: In this past edition of Maryland Manual, some links are to external sites.

    View the current Manual

    This information resource of the Maryland State Archives is presented here for fair use in the public domain. When this material is used, in whole or in part, proper citation and credit must be attributed to the Maryland State Archives. PLEASE NOTE: Rights assessment for associated source material is the responsibility of the user.

    Tell Us What You Think About the Maryland State Archives Website!

    [ Archives' Home Page  ||  All About Maryland  ||  Maryland Manual On-Line  ||  Reference & Research
    ||  Search the Archives   ||  Education & Outreach  ||  Archives of Maryland Online ]

    Governor     General Assembly    Judiciary     Maryland.Gov

    Copyright June 09, 2015 Maryland State Archives